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Sự kiện:  Học tập, Tiếng Anh

Thế nào là câu chẻ? Cách sử dụng và các dạng bài tập ứng dụng quan trọng

Trong tiếng Anh, để nhấn mạnh phần thông tin quan trọng, ta có thể sử dụng cấu trúc câu chẻ. Bài viết dưới đây sẽ tổng hợp những dạng câu chẻ thường được sử dụng nhất.

1. Các dạng cấu trúc của câu chẻ (Cleft Sentences) 

  • Khi câu có phần thông tin nhấn mạnh ở hiện tại, dùng cấu trúc sau: 

               It is  +  phần thông tin nhấn mạnh +  that  +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu. 

  • Khi câu có phần thông tin nhấn mạnh ở quá khứ, dùng cấu trúc sau: 

                It was  +  phần thông tin nhấn mạnh +  that  +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu.

1.1 Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh chủ ngữ (Subject focus)

  • Khi subject focus là người, có thể sử dụng who = that:

                It is / It was    +  subject focus +  that / who  +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu.

  • Khi subject focus là vật hay sự việc chỉ sử dụng that:

                It is / It was    +  subject focus +  that   +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu.
Ví dụ:   

  • Scientists have made efforts to disable corona virus.

⇒ It is scientists that / who have made efforts to disable corona virus.

  • English becomes the official language of some countries.

⇒ It is English that becomes the official language of some countries.

  • Her absence at the party made me sad. 

⇒ It was her absence at the party that made me sad. (thông tin ở quá khứ và chủ ngữ là cụm từ)

1.2 Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh tân ngữ (object focus)

  • Khi object focus là người, vật hay sự việc chỉ sử dụng that

              It is / It was    +  object focus +  that   +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu.

Ví dụ: 

  • Volunteers often help the aged with housework in America. 

⇒ It is the aged that volunteers often help with housework in America.

  • Scientists have just invented a vaccine for COVID-19. 

⇒ It is a vaccine for COVID-19 that scientists have just invented.

1.3 Câu chẻ nhấn mạnh tân ngữ (adverbial phrase / adverbial clause)

  • Cấu trúc câu chẻ nhấn mạnh tân ngữ

             It is / It was  +  adverbial phrase / adverbial clause focus +  that  +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu.

Ví dụ: 

  • Volunteers often help the aged with housework in America. 

⇒ It is in America that volunteers often help the aged with housework. 

Lưu ý: Cũng cùng là câu “Volunteers often help the aged with housework in America.”, tuy nhiên với ví dụ này, chúng ta chú trọng đến thông tin in America / adverbial phrase.

  • He felt a great sense of relief only when the plane landed. 

(only when the plane landed → adverbial clause focus)

⇒ It was only when the plane landed that he felt a great sense of relief.

1.4 Câu chẻ dạng bị động (Cleft sentences in passive form)

  • Volunteers often help the aged with housework in America. 

⇒ It is the aged that are often helped with housework in America by volunteers.

⇒ Passive form: The aged are often helped with housework in America by volunteers.

Lưu ý: Cũng cùng là câu “Volunteers often help the aged with housework in America.”, nhưng ta chú trọng đến nhấn mạnh thông tin the aged / object phrase focus với hình thức bị động.

1.5 Câu chẻ dạng phủ định (Negative) 

  • Cleft sentences cũng dùng với câu phủ định 

⇒  It isn’t  / It wasn’t    +  phần thông tin nhấn mạnh +  that  +  phần thông tin còn lại của câu. 

Ví dụ: 

  • These boys didn’t start the fight.

⇒ It was not / wasn’t these boys that / who didn’t started the fight.

2. Bài tập ứng dụng câu chẻ (Cleft Sentences) 


Bài 1: Dùng  It is / It was  ………..  that với cụm từ được in đậm hay những từ được cho sẵn: 

1. We all look for happiness.

⇒ It ………………………………………………………………………. 

2. He was born in Vietnam.

⇒ It ……………………………………………………………………….

3. You are going on holiday in August.

It ……………………………………………………………………….

4.  My secretary sent the bill to him yesterday.

⇒ It ……………………………………………………………………….

5.  She met her former teacher on the way to school.

⇒ It ……………………………………………………………………….

6.  John’s car didn’t get broken into yesterday.

⇒ It ……………………………………………………………………….

7. The hunter lost the tiger’s trail in the middle of the jungle.

⇒ It……………………………………………………………………….

8. Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers.

⇒  It was that singers that was ……………………………………………

9. I studied abroad when I was nineteen. 

⇒ It ………………………………………………………………………. 

10. They always serve a lot of dedicate dishes at the party.

⇒ It is a lot of dedicate dishes that are …………………………………… 

Bài 2: Chọn đáp án thích hợp 

1. It is Tom _____________ the test.

A. who finish     

B. that are finishing     

C. finishes     

D. that has finished 

2. It Is ________________ we usually sit in the afternoon reading books.

A. on the tree that        

B. by the tree     

C. under the tree that        

D. under the tree which 

3. ______________________ the nearest the sun.

A. It is Mercury who is     

B. It is Mercury, which is 

C.  It is Mercury that are   

D.  It is Mercury that is

4.  It is ________________________ that you can leave the exam room.

A. only when have you finished your papers

B. only have you finished your papers

C. you have finished your papers

D. only when you have finished your papers

5. It was the great efforts ______________ to complete his study.

A. that made     

B. that he made     

C. that he made it             

D. he made it 

6. _____________________ a high level of blood cholesterol. 

A. It is eggs that contain     

B.  Those are eggs it contains 

C. It is eggs that contains      

D.  It is eggs contain

Đáp án: 

Bài 1:

1. It is happiness that we all look for.

2.  It was in Vietnam that he was born.

3. It is in August that you are going on holiday.

4. It was my secretary that / who sent the bill to him yesterday.

5.  It was her former teacher that she met on the way to school.

6.  It wasn’t John’s car that got broken into yesterday.

7.  It was in the middle of the jungle that the hunter lost the tiger’s trail.

8. It was that singer that was given a lot of flowers by fans.

9. It was when I was nineteen that I studied abroad.

10. It is a lot of dedicate dishes that are always served at the party.

Bài 2:

1D. that has finished 

2C. under the tree that

3D. It is Mercury that is

4D. only when you have finished your papers

5B. that he made 

6A. It is eggs that contain 

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Người biên soạn:

Giáo viên Trần Thị Kim Thúy