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Sự kiện:  Học tập, Tiếng Anh

Các cụm từ nguyên mẫu có ‘to’ và mệnh đề chỉ mục đích thường gặp trong tiếng Anh

Dạng nguyên mẫu có ‘to’ xuất hiện rất phổ biến trong tiếng Anh, trong bài viết này cùng tìm hiểu các cụm từ và mệnh đề chỉ mục đích có dạng cấu trúc này.

1. Cụm động từ nguyên mẫu có “to” chỉ mục đích (to-infinitive phrases of purpose)

1.1 Cụm động từ nguyên mẫu có "to" chỉ mục đích khẳng định 

Để diễn tả mục đích khẳng định, ta dùng: 

  • (for O)  to-V1
  • so as (for O) to-V1
  • in order (for O) to-V1

Nếu túc từ (O) sau “for” nói về chủ từ → bỏ “for  O”.

Nếu túc từ (O) sau “to-V1” nói về chủ từ → bỏ túc từ đó.

Những cụm nguyên mẫu này được đặt ở đầu câu hoặc cuối câu.

Ví dụ:

  • I study hard so as to pass my final exam.
  • He moved to a new house in order to be near his work.
  • There weren’t any chairs for us to sit on.
  • In order to/So as to/To + prevent cheating, the school has introduced stricter regulations.

1.2 Cụm từ nguyên mẫu có "to" chỉ mục đích phủ định 

Để diễn tả mục đích phủ định, ta dùng:

  • so as (for O) not to-V1
  • in order (for O) not to-V1

Nếu túc từ (O) sau “for” nói về chủ từ → bỏ “for  O”.

Nếu túc từ (O) sau “to-V1” nói về chủ từ → bỏ túc từ đó.

Những cụm nguyên mẫu này được đặt ở đầu câu hoặc cuối câu.

Ví dụ:

  • She got up early so as not to miss the bus.
  • In order not to get lost, I bought a city map.

2. Mệnh đề (trạng ngữ) chỉ mục đích [(Adverbial) clauses of purpose]

  • Mệnh đề chỉ mục đích thường bắt đầu với: so that / in order that.
  • Khi mệnh đề chính ở thì hiện tại, thì mệnh đề mục đích thường dùng với “can / will / may”.
  • Khi mệnh đề chính ở thì quá khứ, thì mệnh đề mục đích thường được dùng với “could / would / might”.
  • Không thường dùng mệnh đề mục đích ở đầu câu.

so that/ in order that S + (can / could)/ (will / would)/ (may / might) + V1 

Ví dụ:

  • We study English in order that we can find a better job.
  • I took my golf clubs so that I could play at the weekend.

3. Một số bài tập tham khảo 

Bài 1: Use a sentence from A and a sentence from B to make a new sentence, using to-infinitive of purpose:

A                      

1. I shouted.              

2. I had to go to the bank.               

3. I’m saving money.          

4. I went to the hospital.      

5. I’m wearing two sweaters.      

6. I called the police.            

B

a. I want to keep warm.

b. I wanted to report that my car had been stolen.

c. I want to go to Canada.

d. I had to have an operation.

e.  I had to have an operation.

f. I wanted to warn people of the dange.

⇒1. I shouted to warn people of the danger.

2. I had to go to the bank _____________________________________________________.

3.  ______________________________________________________________________.

4. _______________________________________________________________________

5. _______________________________________________________________________

6. _______________________________________________________________________

Bài 2: Combine each pair of sentences, using clauses of purpose:

1. I hurried. I didn’t want to be late.

→ I hurried so that I wouldn’t be late.

2. We wore warm clothes. We didn’t want to get cold.

→ We wore _____________________.

3. The man spoke very slowly. He wanted me to understand what he said.

→ The man _________________________________________________________________.

4. Please arrive early. We want to be able to start the meeting on time.

→ Please ___________________________________________________________________.

5. She locked the door. She didn’t want to be disturbed.

→ _________________________________________________________________________

6. I slowed down. I wanted my car behind me to be able to pass.

→ _________________________________________________________________________

Bài 3: Choose the word or phrase that best completes each sentence:

1. People in the world must unite their efforts ___________ maintain and protect peace.

A. so that              

B. in order to                  

C. for                

D. so as

2. Some young people like to earn their own living ____ they will be independent from their parents.

A. if                    

B. in order                    

C. in case                

D. in order that

3. We went to a restaurant _______ celebrate my birthday.

A. so as not            

B. so that                    

C. so as to              

D. in the event that

4. ____ for the company to be profitable, sales would need to rise by at least 60 %.

 A. In order              

B. So                        

C. In order                  

D. In order that

5. “He left a message so that I could know where to find him.” Means _____________.

A. He left a the message, which I knew where to find.

B. He left a message, because I knew where to find him.

C. I could know where to find him thanks to the message he left.

D. I could know where to find him, so he left a message.

Bài 4: Choose the part in each sentence that needs correction:

1. I always keep fruit in the fridge in order for me to keep insects off it.

A. keep fruit 

B. for me 

C. to keep 

D. off it
                       
2. To turn on the light, I was surprised at what I saw.

A. To turn on 

B. was

C. at

D. what

3. In addition to save on gas, the modern car is designed to save on maintenance expenses.

A. save on 

B. the

C. is designed 

D. save on maintenance                     

4. In purchasing a winter coat, it is very important for trying it on with heavy clothing underneath.

A. In purchasing 

B. winter coat

C. it is very 

D. for trying    

5. We should do morning exercises regularly so that improve our health.        

A. should do 

B. regularly

C. so that 

D. health

Đáp án

Bài 1:

2. To get some money

3. ‘m saving money to go to Canada

4. I went into the hospital to have an operation.

5. I’m wearing two sweaters to keep warm.

6. I called the police to report that my car had been stolen.

Bài 2: 

2. warm clothes so that / in order that we wouldn’t get cold

3. spoke very slowly so that I could / would understand what he said

4. arrive early so that we can start the meeting on time

5. She locked the door so that she would not be disturbed.

6. I slowed down so that the car behind me could pass.

Bài 3:

1.B            

2.D            

3.C                

4.A                

5.C

Bài 4:

1.B → bỏ “for me”

2.A → When I turned on / When turning on / Upon turning on

3.A → saving on 

4.D → to try

5.C → to / in order to

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Người biên soạn:

Giáo viên Nguyễn Phương Chi 

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