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Sự kiện:  Tiếng Anh

7 dạng cấu trúc song song (Parallel Structure) trong câu và mệnh đề tiếng Anh

Cấu trúc song song trong tiếng Anh được sử dụng rất nhiều ở các kỳ thi và giao tiếp hàng ngày. Vì thế bạn cần nắm bắt và thực hành cấu trúc song song thường xuyên.

Parallel Structure (Cấu trúc song song) không chỉ là phần ngữ pháp quan trọng trong các kỳ thi mà còn là công cụ giúp câu văn, bài viết của bạn trở nên mượt mà, dễ hiểu hơn trong tất cả tình huống giao tiếp hay trong những bài viết sau này. Chúng ta có thể bắt gặp cấu trúc song song trong tiếng Anh ở mọi nơi, từ bài kiểm tra, giao tiếp hàng ngày, tới những bài hát, hay văn bản học thuật.  Chúng ta cùng tìm hiểu nhé!

1. Parallel Structure là gì?

Parallel Structure (Cấu trúc song song) trong tiếng Anh là câu có chứa hai hoặc nhiều thành phần (từ/ cụm từ) hoặc chứa mệnh đề có cấu trúc ngữ pháp giống nhau. 

Ví dụ:

  • Ryan likes swimming, hiking, and riding a motorcycle (V-ing)
    (Trong ví dụ này, các thành phần có cùng dạng ngữ pháp là “V-ing” như swimming, hiking, reading được xem là thành phần song song.)
  • Jane says her new friend is pretty, humorous, and sociable. (Adjective)
    (Trong ví dụ này, các thành phần có cùng dạng ngữ pháp là “tính từ” như pretty, humorous, sociable được xem là thành phần song song.)
  • The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that he would have time to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask him questions. (Clause)
    (Trong ví dụ này, các thành phần có cùng dạng ngữ pháp là “mệnh đề” như that he would present his product at the meeting, that he would have time to show his slide presentation, và that prospective buyers would ask him questions được xem là thành phần song song.)

2. Một số dạng Parallel Structure thường gặp

2.1 Gerund/V-ing

Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.

2.2 Infinitive

Mary likes to hiketo swim, and to ride a bicycle.

OR:

Mary likes to hikeswim, and ride a bicycle.

2.3 Verb

The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.

2.4 Adverb

The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.

2.5 Adjective

This book contains poems which are romantic, soothing, and enjoyable.

2.6 Noun/ Noun phrase

On Saturdays they may visit the open-air market, the docks, or the park.

2.7 Clause

The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.

3. Các từ nối thường được dùng trong Parallel Structure: and, but, nor, or, yet, not only … but also

  • The photos are black and white.
  • It's an expensive but useful book.
  • You can pay either by cash or by credit card.
  • We have just found out an inexpensive yet effective solution to our problem.
  • She's not only a painter but also a writer.

* CHÚ Ý: Các từ/cụm từ trong câu với Cấu trúc song song trong tiếng Anh phải cùng một loại để diễn tả ý nghĩa liệt kê.

Đây là một lưu ý rất quan trọng khi sử dụng dạng ngữ pháp này. Để có thể rút kinh nghiệm cho bản thân và ghi nhớ kiến thức này sâu hơn, hãy cùng điểm qua một số lỗi thường gặp khi sử dụng cấu trúc song song  nhé!

1 Not Parallel The soldiers approached the enemy camp slowly and silent.
Parallel The soldiers approached the enemy camp slowly and silently.
2 Not Parallel Sam is responsible for stocking merchandise, writing orders for delivery, and sales of computers.
Parallel Sam is responsible for stocking merchandise, writing orders for delivery, and sellingcomputers.
3 Not Parallel The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner.
Parallel The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
4 Not Parallel The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.
Parallel The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.
5 Not Parallel

The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.

Parallel

The dictionary can be used to find these: word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and  irregular verbs.

BÀI TẬP

Bài tập 1: CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER

1. I want this to be done ________________.

A. precisely, carefully and immediate

B. with accurate measure,carefully, immediately

C. precisely, carefully and immediately

D. precisely, with proper precaution, and immediately

2. His actions were ________________.

A. bold, with lots of courage, and laudable

B. bold, courageous and laudable

C. bold, with lots of courage, and can be praised

D. bold, courage, and can be praised

3. She was ________________.

A. weak, vulnerable and stupid

B. not so strong, without any defense and stupid

C. weak, without any defense and stupid

D. weak, vulnerable and lacked intelligent

4. Doctor advised him ________________.

A. to stay at home, taking proper medication and avoiding junk food

B. staying at home, to take proper medication and to avoid junk food

C. to stay at home, to take proper medication and avoiding junk food

D. to stay at home, to take proper medication and to avoid junk food

5. My wife is ________________.

A. an artist, sings and dances.

B. an artist, a singer and dances

C. an artist, a singer and a dancer

D. an artist.  Sings and a dancer

6. Money can’t help you to buy ________________.

A. happiness,being peaceful and a perfect family

B. being happy, peace and a perfect family

C. happiness, peace and a perfect family

D. being happy,being peaceful and a perfect family

7. She told me ________________.

A. to be responsible, spending more times with her and being more affectionate

B. being responsible, to spend more times with her and to be more affectionate

C. to be responsible, to spend more times with her and being more affectionate

D. to be responsible, to spend more times with her and to be more affectionate

8. After losing the game the manager blamed players’ lack of ________________ .

A. concentration, proper attitude and motivation

B. concentrating, proper attitude and motivation

C. concentration, proper attitude and not being motivated

D. concentrating, proper attitude and not being motivated

Bài tập 2: DECIDE WHETHER THE SENTENCE HAS PARALLEL STRUCTURE OR NOT.

1. She decided to leave her job and travelling the world.

Parallel

Not Parallel

2. He started the engine, released the hand break, and checked the mirror.

Parallel

Not Parallel

3. Some people think that being successful is the same thing as to have money.

Parallel

Not Parallel

4. Did you decide not to come because you are tired or are you feeling sick?

Parallel

Not Parallel

5. She was disappointed by not only his clothes but also his mannerisms.

Parallel

Not Parallel

6. She wants neither the red one nor the yellow one.

Parallel

Not Parallel

7. When I wake up I like either walking the dog or to go for a jog.

Parallel

Not Parallel

8. I would describe her as intelligent, caring, and thoughtful.

Parallel

Not Parallel

9. He suggested that we go for a meal then we should see a film.

Parallel

Not Parallel

10. Spain is a place where you can eat cheap food and soak up the sun.

Parallel

Not Parallel

Bài tập 3: CORRECT THE FAULTY PARALLELISM IN THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES TO MAKE THEM CLEAR, CONCISE, AND EASY TO READ.

1. Eggs contain not only protein but are also are full of vitamins. _____________________________________________________________

2. They are low in sodium but do not have many calories. _____________________________________________________________

3. Eggs, however, are high in cholesterol and rather fatfilled.

_____________________________________________________________

4. The yolk of one egg contains 213 milligrams of cholesterol and there are 5 grams of fat.

_____________________________________________________________

5. Still, the whites are both fat-free and have no cholesterol.

_____________________________________________________________

ĐÁP ÁN

Bài tập 1

1. C

2. B

3. A

4. D

5. C

6. C

7. D

8. A

Bài tập 2

1. not parallel

2. parallel

3. not parallel

4. not parallel

5. parallel

6. parallel

7. not parallel

8. parallel

9. not parallel

10. parallel

Bài tập 3

1. Eggs contain not only protein but also vitamins.

2. They are low in sodium but high in calories.

3. Eggs, however, are high in cholesterol and in fat.

4. The yolk of one egg contains 213 milligrams of cholesterol and 5 grams of fat. 

5. Still, the whites are both fat-free and cholesterol-free.


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